Mariology is the theological study of Mary, which methodically presents teachings about her and her veneration to other parts of the faith, such as teachings about Jesus Christ, redemption and grace. While there exists variety of Christian views on Mary, Mariology is a mainly Roman Catholic discipline, based on four dogmas on Mary which are a part of Roman Catholic theology and need to be explained in this context.
Roman Catholic Mariology is summarized in the document Lumen Gentium of the Second Vatican Council Within the Catholic Church, the focus is on veneration of the Mother of God. She has been at times, regarded her as Mediatrix between God and humans and as Co-Redemptrix of mankind,subordinate to her son. Eastern Orthodox theology calls her the Theotokos, emphasizing her status as the mother of God incarnate in Jesus, but not the mother of God from eternity.
Protestant views of Mary vary from denomination to denomination. They focus generally on interpretations of Mary in the bible, the Creed, (which professes the virgin birth), and the Ecumenical Council of Ephesus, in 431, calling Mary the Mother of God. Protestants reject the veneration of Mary practiced by Roman Catholics and the Eastern Orthodox. Martin Luther's views on Mary, John Calvin's views on Mary, and Karl Barth's views on Mary have all informed modern Protestant views. Anglican Marian theology also varies greatly, from the Anglo-Catholic (very close to Roman Catholic views) to the far more typically Protestant Evangelical views.
A better mutual understanding among different Christian groups regarding their Mariology has been sought in a number of ecumenical meetings and documents on Mary.
Outside Christianity, the Islamic view of the Virgin Mary, known as Maryam in Arabic, is that she was an extremely pious and chaste woman who miraculously gave birth while still a virgin to the prophet Jesus, known in Arabic as Isa.
Specific non-Roman Catholic views